The average commute length increased from 8.5 miles in 1983 to 12.2 miles in 2001.
Energy Utilization: Wastewater Treatment Facilities
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to perform a quantitative assessment of the life cycle of wastewater. The assessment begins with the various sources and applicable pretreatment for wastewater, including necessary pumping and lift stations, treatment of wastewater and the resulting sludge, and concludes with the discharge of treated wastewater. The output includes energy requirements, in addition to environmental impact and performance information as a result of the operations listed above. If the influent wastewater characteristics, geography, and state and federal regulations are known, decision-makers can improve the design of a wastewater treatment plant.